- Spanish Health Illustrated Encyclopedia
- Complementary and Alternative Medicine
- Condition Symptom Links
- Drug Category
- Supplement Depletion Links
- Supplement Warning Links
- Herb Interaction
- Herb Side Effect Links
- Supplement Use Links
- Supplement Side Effect Links
- Herb Warning Links
- Herb Use Links
- Supplement Interaction
- Wellness Tools
- Thomson DrugNotes
- In-Depth Reports
- Pregnancy Center
- Care Guides
- Spanish Surgery and Procedures
- Health Illustrated Encyclopedia
- Thomson DrugNotes Spanish
- Spanish Pregnancy Center
- Surgery and Procedures
- Complementary and Alternative Medicine
What is therapeutic touch?
Therapeutic touch is a form of healing that uses a practice called "laying on of hands" to correct or balance energy fields. The word "touch" is misleading because physical touch is generally not involved. Instead, the hands hover over the body. Therapeutic touch is based on the theory that the body, mind, and emotions form a complex energy field. According to therapeutic touch, health is an indication of a balanced energy field, and illness represents imbalance. Studies suggest that therapeutic touch can help to heal wounds, reduce pain, and promote relaxation.
What is the energy field?
Although scientists differ on the nature and relevance of the human energy field, the concept of an energy field is also a part of other types of healing. In the ancient medical systems of India and China, the energy field is described as life energy. It is thought to exist throughout the body and is responsible for maintaining normal physiological, psychological, and spiritual functions. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, this energy is called qi (pronounced "chee"); in India's ayurvedic medicine it is called prana.
What is the history of therapeutic touch?
Dolores Krieger, a professor at New York University School of Nursing, and Dora Kunz, a natural healer, developed therapeutic touch in the early 1970s. At first, Krieger and Kunz only taught the techniques to Krieger's graduate school nursing students, but Krieger's professional research and writing increased the popularity of the technique, particularly among nurses. The practice grew primarily through a grassroots effort of nurses throughout the United States. Today, therapeutic touch is taught at hospitals and health centers worldwide and is most commonly practiced by nurses.
How does therapeutic touch work?
Scientists are not certain how therapeutic touch works. There are few studies, and scientific investigators have not detected the human energy field discussed by Therapeutic Touch practitioners. Still, two theories have been put forward.
One theory is that the actual pain associated with a physically or emotionally painful experience (such as infection, injury, or a difficult relationship) remains in the body's cells. The pain stored in the cells is disruptive, and prevents some cells from working properly with other cells in the body. This results in disease. Practitioners believe therapeutic touch promotes health by restoring communication between cells.
The other theory is based on the principles of quantum physics. As blood, which contains iron, circulates in our bodies an electromagnetic field is produced. According to this theory, at one time we could all easily see this field (called an aura), but now only certain individuals, such as those who practice therapeutic touch, develop this ability.
More generally, therapeutic touch is based on the idea that optimal health requires a balanced flow of life energy. Practitioners of therapeutic touch, by their own description, sense your energy through their hands and then send healthy energy back to you. When receiving therapeutic touch you usually feel such things as warmth, relaxation, and pain relief. The practitioner describes your energy as hot or cold, active or passive, blocked or free. There are eight general regions of the body above which energy is sensed -- head, throat, heart, stomach, lower abdomen, sacral region, knees, and feet. Ultimately, you, the recipient of therapeutic touch are the healer. The practitioner simply allows your body's own healing mechanisms to emerge. The role of the practitioner is to facilitate this process.
What should I expect on my first visit?
Before the session begins, you will be asked to sit or lie down. No undressing is necessary. Sessions can be broken down into four steps:
(1) Centering -- the therapist becomes "centered" by using breathing, imagery, and meditation to achieve an altered state of consciousness for herelf.
(2) Assessment -- the therapist holds their hands 2 - 4 inches away from your body while moving from your head to your feet. This is done to assess the energy field surrounding your body. Therapists often describe feelings of warmth, coolness, static, and tingling over the areas of energy "congestion" or "blockage."
(3) Intervention -- once the therapist locates a congested or blocked area, she will move her hands in a rhythmic motion, starting at the top of the blocked area and moving down and away from your body. This action, known as unruffling, is repeated until the therapist no longer senses congestion or until you begin to sense relief. The therapist will also visualize and transmit life energy to specific areas of your body, also intended to correct imbalances.
(4) Evaluation/Closure-- once you've had a few minutes to relax, the therapist will ask you how you feel. The therapist may recheck your energy field to make sure she didn't overlook any blockages.
What is therapeutic touch good for?
Most studies indicate that therapeutic touch can relieve tension headaches and reduce pain, such as pain associated with burns, osteoarthritis, or following surgery. It may also speed the healing of wounds and improve function in those with arthritis. In fact, studies show that therapeutic touch stimulates cell proliferation.
Therapeutic touch also promotes relaxation. Cancer, heart disease, and burn patients have reported that therapeutic touch significantly lessens their anxiety. Generally, the deep relaxation associated with therapeutic touch reduces stress, lowers blood pressure, and improves breathing. Being relaxed may also lead to lower cholesterol levels and also may improve immune and bowel functions. Difficult pregnancies may also be made a little easier with the help of therapeutic touch.
Together with medical treatment, therapeutic touch can help with many additional conditions, including:
- Sleep apnea
- Restless leg syndrome (a disorder that causes insomnia)
- Alzheimer's disease and, possibly, other forms of dementia
Some people indicate that they experience emotional and spiritual changes after receiving therapeutic touch. These may include greater self-confidence, self-control, and self-understanding.
There is still controversy, however, as to whether the healing power of therapeutic touch has anything to do with the "laying on of hands." Critics suggest that the healing observed after therapeutic touch may be the result of the relaxing nature of the therapy itself and not the energy transfer between the therapist's hands and the individual's body.
Is there anything I should watch out for?
You may feel thirsty, lightheaded, and a need to urinate. Lightheadedness generally lasts for 15 minutes after a session, but you may feel thirsty for days. According to some practitioners, if you were flooded with too much energy you might feel increased pain and be irritable, restless, anxious, or even nauseated. Some say that therapeutic touch may also worsen fevers and active inflammation; therefore, it is best not to obtain therapeutic touch when you have either a fever or active inflammation (such as a swollen joint from arthritis).
Some therapeutic touch practitioners recommend that children, the elderly, and very sick people be treated for only a short time. Although there is no actual touching involved with therapeutic touch, talk with your practitioner about what to expect from a session, particularly if you have been physically or sexually abused in your past.
How can I find a qualified practitioner?
There is no formal certification program in the United States for therapeutic touch. Most therapeutic touch practitioners are in the nursing profession (although some massage therapists, physical therapists, chiropractors, acupuncturists, and others practice therapeutic touch as well). Nurse Healers-Professional Associates International (NH-PAI) recommends that people look for therapists who practice regularly (at least an average of 2 times per week), have at least 5 years of experience, and have completed at least 12 hours of therapeutic touch workshops. To locate a qualified practitioner near you, visit the NH-PAI web site, at www.therapeutic-touch.org .
What is the future of therapeutic touch?
While there seem to be many potential uses for therapeutic touch, particularly for chronically ill people, measuring the effectiveness of the technique is very difficult. As a result, much of the research that exists has been criticized. Improved studies may lead to wider acceptance.
Abbot NC. Healing as a therapy for human disease: a systematic review. J Altern Complement Med. 2000;6(2):159-169.
Astin JA, Harkness E, Ernst E. The efficacy of "distant healing": a systematic review of randomized trials. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:903-910.
Aveyard B, Sykes M, Doherty D. Therapeutic touch in dementia care. Nurs Older People. 2002;14(6):20-21.
Begley SS. The energetic language of therapeutic touch. A holistic tool for nurse practitioners. Adv Nurse Pract. 2002;10(5):69-71.
Blankfield RP, Sulzmann C, Fradley LG, et al. Therapeutic touch in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2001;14(5):335-342.
Claman H. 'Unruffling' the mystique of therapeutic touch. And voices against TT. Nurs Pract. 2002;27(4):11.
Denison B. Touch the pain away: new research on therapeutic touch and persons with fibromyalgia syndrome. Holist Nurs Pract. 2004;18(3):142-151.
Engebretson J, Wardell DW. Experience of a Reiki session. Altern Ther Health Med. 2002;8(2):48-53.
Gorski T. Unruffling the mystique of therapeutic touch. TT: the voices against. Nurs Pract. 2002;27(2):7.
Gregory S, Verdouw J. Therapeutic touch: its application for residents in aged care. Aust Nurs J. 2005;12(7):23-5.
Gronowicz GA, Jhaveri A, Clarke LW, Aronow MS, Smith TH. Therapeutic touch stimulates the proliferation of human cells in culture. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14(3):233-9.
Jhaveri A, Walsh SJ, Wang Y, McCarthy M, Gronowicz. Therapeutic touch affects DNA synthesis and mineralization of human osteoblasts in culture. J Orthop Res. 2008;26(11):1541-6.
Kelley M. Strategies for innovative energy-based nursing practice: the healing touch program. SCI Nurs. 2002;19(3):117-124.
Kiernan J. The experience of Therapeutic Touch in the lives of five postpartum women. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2002;27(1):47-53.
Larden CN, Palmer ML, Janssen P. Efficacy of therapeutic touch in treating pregnant inpatients who have a chemical dependency. J Holist Nurs. 2004;22(4):320-332.
Leskowitz ED. Phantom limb pain treated with therapeutic touch: a case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81(4):522-524.
Lowry RC. The effect of an educational intervention on willingness to receive therapeutic touch. J Holist Nurs. 2002;20(1):48-60.
Post-White J, Kinney ME, Savik K, et al. Therapeutic massage and healing touch improve symptoms in cancer. Integr Cancer Ther. 2003;2(4):332-344.
Rakel D. Healing or Therapeutic Touch and Reiki Therapy. Rakel: Integrative Medicine, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier, Inc. 2008. Ch. 81.
Sampson W. Unruffling the mystique of therapeutic touch. TT: the voices against. Nurs Pract. 2002;27(2):7.
Smith DW, Arnstein P, Rosa KC, Wells-Federman C. Effects of integrating therapeutic touch into a cognitive behavioral pain treatment program. Report of a pilot clinical trial. J Holist Nurs. 2002;20(4):367-387.
So PS, Jiang Y, Qin Y. Touch therapies for pain relief in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(4):CD006535.
Turner JG, Clark AJ, Gauthier DK, Williams M. The effect of therapeutic touch on pain and anxiety in burn patients. J Adv Nurs. 1998;28(1):10-20.
Wardell DW, Engebretson J. Biological correlates of Reiki Touchism healing. J Adv Nurs. 2001;33:439-445.
Wilkinson DS, Knox PL, Chatman JE, et al. The clinical effectiveness of healing touch. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8(1):33-47.
Winstead-Fry P, Kijek J. An integrative review and meta-analysis of therapeutic touch research. Alternative Therapies. 1999;5(6):58-67.
Woods DL, Dimond M. The effect of therapeutic touch on agitated behavior and cortisol in persons with Alzheimer's disease. Biol Res Nurs. 2002;4(2):104-114.
Woods DL, Craven RF, Whitney J. The effect of therapeutic touch on behavioral symptoms of persons with dementia. Altern Ther Health Med. 2005;11(1):66-74.